The WordPress coreCoreCore is the set of software required to run WordPress. The Core Development Team builds WordPress. development team builds WordPress! Follow this site for general updates, status reports, and the occasional code debate. There’s lots of ways to contribute:
Found a bugbugA bug is an error or unexpected result. Performance improvements, code optimization, and are considered enhancements, not defects. After feature freeze, only bugs are dealt with, with regressions (adverse changes from the previous version) being the highest priority.?Create a ticket in our bug tracker.
This guide will clarify how to handle the blockBlockBlock is the abstract term used to describe units of markup that, composed together, form the content or layout of a webpage using the WordPress editor. The idea combines concepts of what in the past may have achieved with shortcodes, custom HTML, and embed discovery into a single consistent API and user experience. editor portion of a major WordPress release. This is a living document and feedback is welcomed as the hope is this can be continually improved as more people get experience managing this side of a release cycle.
Timeline planner: this involves mapping out key milestones for the editor release squad to be aware of, making sure GutenbergGutenbergThe Gutenberg project is the new Editor Interface for WordPress. The editor improves the process and experience of creating new content, making writing rich content much simpler. It uses ‘blocks’ to add richness rather than shortcodes, custom HTML etc. https://wordpress.org/gutenberg/ releases line up well, and helping remind/wrangle work around those dates.
Project Board Manager: this includes setting up the board, adding automations, keeping the board up to date with priority issues, triagetriageThe act of evaluating and sorting bug reports, in order to decide priority, severity, and other factors. of incoming GitHubGitHubGitHub is a website that offers online implementation of git repositories that can can easily be shared, copied and modified by other developers. Public repositories are free to host, private repositories require a paid subscription. GitHub introduced the concept of the ‘pull request’ where code changes done in branches by contributors can be reviewed and discussed before being merged be the repository owner. https://github.com/ issues, and reporting to teams any major blockers.
Release Wrangler: this role involves managing the actual packaging of the release and working with the wider release squad.
Communication Wrangler: this includes helping wrangle dev notesdev noteEach important change in WordPress Core is documented in a developers note, (usually called dev note). Good dev notes generally include:
a description of the change;
the decision that led to this change
a description of how developers are supposed to work with that change.
Dev notes are published on Make/Core blog during the beta phase of WordPress release cycle. Publishing dev notes is particularly important when plugin/theme authors and WordPress developers need to be aware of those changes.In general, all dev notes are compiled into a Field Guide at the beginning of the release candidate phase., attending meetings to share important information, and reporting back updates to the release squad.
This is a list of the major time-critical tasks, sorted by when they should be done:
1 month before BetaBetaA pre-release of software that is given out to a large group of users to trial under real conditions. Beta versions have gone through alpha testing in-house and are generally fairly close in look, feel and function to the final product; however, design changes often occur as part of the process. 1
Set up the release project board on GitHub.
Audit experimental APIs.
2 weeks before Beta 1
Update TrunktrunkA directory in Subversion containing the latest development code in preparation for the next major release cycle. If you are running "trunk", then you are on the latest revision. with the latest Gutenberg packages and PHPPHPThe web scripting language in which WordPress is primarily architected. WordPress requires PHP 5.6.20 or higher changes.
1 week before Beta 1
Compile a list of the main editor features for the release (this list is needed for the Beta 1 release post).
Create tracking issue for dev notes (dev notes should be published by RC1 and need plenty of time to wrangle).
Between Beta 1 and last RCrelease candidateOne of the final stages in the version release cycle, this version signals the potential to be a final release to the public. Also see alpha (beta).
Triage recent bugbugA bug is an error or unexpected result. Performance improvements, code optimization, and are considered enhancements, not defects. After feature freeze, only bugs are dealt with, with regressions (adverse changes from the previous version) being the highest priority. reports and unlabelled issues for critical regressions.
Review any open Pull Requests with the same label.
Start package update/coreCoreCore is the set of software required to run WordPress. The Core Development Team builds WordPress.patchpatchA special text file that describes changes to code, by identifying the files and lines which are added, removed, and altered. It may also be referred to as a diff. A patch can be applied to a codebase for testing. process (described below).
Planning the editor releases and communicating the deadlines
At the start of each release cycle, a planning post is published (example from 5.6) that shows key milestones leading up to a major WordPress release. With Gutenberg releases happening biweekly, you can then map out the releases of Gutenberg that will align with those key milestones.
Based on those mapped out Gutenberg releases, you can then make changes to release cycles as needed whether making releases longer or shorter. For example, you might want to have a shorter release cycle so it aligns with the same week as the first beta to maximize the number of features included from the core editor.
As part of this planning, be sure to include a communication plan with deadlines that features in core editor need to make in order to be included in a major releasemajor releaseA release, identified by the first two numbers (3.6), which is the focus of a full release cycle and feature development. WordPress uses decimaling count for major release versions, so 2.8, 2.9, 3.0, and 3.1 are sequential and comparable in scope.. The best place to share these deadlines is on Make Core and in #core-editor slackSlackSlack is a Collaborative Group Chat Platform https://slack.com/. The WordPress community has its own Slack Channel at https://make.wordpress.org/chat/. channel as a pinned post. You may also want to give a heads up for specific deadlines as they get closer in the core editor meetings.
Project Board Management
How to set up a project board
To help coordinate tasks for release, it’s become a best practice to create a “Must Haves” board” for the major release in Gutenberg’s GitHub repo. Here’s an example from 5.5. This board should contain issues and PRs along with metaMetaMeta is a term that refers to the inside workings of a group. For us, this is the team that works on internal WordPress sites like WordCamp Central and Make WordPress. tasks like audits, discussion points, etc.
Generally speaking, the following columns are recommended:
To do: Contained issues/cards with all the tasks for which there is no progress yet. Try to keep items ordered by priority.
In Progress: Contained tasks that must be done and had someone working on them.
Needs reviews: Tasks that needed a review.
Research/Discussions in progress: An area to record issues that may be a must for a release but where there was no conclusion. Some possible reasons for not having a conclusion are:
The problem was critical but was impossible to replicate, so it’s a matter of waiting for more information to understand the specific conditions where the problem happens.
It is not clear yet if the issue is a regressionregressionA software bug that breaks or degrades something that previously worked. Regressions are often treated as critical bugs or blockers. Recent regressions may be given higher priorities. A "3.6 regression" would be a bug in 3.6 that worked as intended in 3.5. or not, or it is not clear if the issue is a bug or desired behavior.
The issue required a very complex testing setup or trying to replicate it takes a lot of time. In that case, it’s recommended that you write a comment upon finding the issue saying what needed to be done to test it. This helps make it easier for others to jump in to help with testing. If needed, you may need to add the “needs-testing” label as well. From there, make sure to include it in the issue part of the board so you don’t lose track. As soon as things were tested, you can then move the issue to the “To do” column if it was something that should be fixed or archive/close the issue if it was not something needing a fix.
Approved: Tasks that were ready to merge (reviewed and approved). This is helpful to see at a glance any issues that might be approved but that the PR author hasn’t merged yet and can enable you to keep PRs moving.
Done: Tasks that were finished, merged, etc. and didn’t require any additional work.
Notes, Useful Links, Etc: this is a helpful column to add relevant information like:
The version of Gutenberg that the last WordPress release included and the version of Gutenberg that we were going to include in the next major release.
Link to the WordPress release cycle page.
Link to the WordPress Planning Roundup post that included the most relevant editor features.
During the release, you’ll find many people will ask questions. If a question was repeated multiple times, that was a signal to include the information people were asking in this column.
After creating the board, it’s recommended that you configure GitHub automation to move tasks to “Done” when the relevant PR’s are merged, or issues are closed, and to move PR’s to needs review when they are pending approval. This will lessen the amount of meta work that needs to be done.
How to keep the project board useful for others
Since the project board will be a place that meetings reference and people bookmark, it’s important to take steps to keep it current and useful for others. The following actions are recommended and can be divided up:
Sort items in “To do” column by priority. Keep the highest priority items at the top so more people will see them and perhaps jump in to help or at least be aware of current challenges.
When an issue gets a PR associated, or a card got an issue, archive the issue or card and add the PR or issue to the board.
Regularly move items to the most relevant columns as the status of a task changes. This is particularly important to do if automation doesn’t automatically catch them. For example, this can happen with meta tasks without any associated PRs.
Where to share the project board
To help others discover the project board, it’s recommended that you share the link to it regularly in both the core editor meetings and in the general slack channel as helpful. This will get people in the habit of checking the project board and for them to share it in turn.
Assigning Tasks From the Board
For items in the “To Do” column, it’s recommended that you find someone assigned in time before the release milestones. The easiest way to do this is to ask in the #core-editor channel for volunteers to pick tasks from that column. If no one volunteers, you will need to do some research to find the people familiar with the items needing help (checking previous Gutenberg PRs can be helpful here) and asking them if they can take on that work or help another person do so.
This might not be a part of the process you need to do particularly if the release squad that you’re on inherited previous features that didn’t make it into the last major release. This is quite common so don’t be panicked if that’s the case!
To get a sense of the major features currently being worked on, it’s helpful to review what’s been released recently and what’s currently being planned for in the coming month. As you do so, take note of what those big themes are of each release and monthly plan. With some documented ideas in mind, chat with the design editor release leadRelease LeadThe community member ultimately responsible for the Release. to make sure you’re on the same page about the main features to include from the core editor in the core release. It’s okay if this list is long to start as this overall process should help you refine what’s there.
Step 2: Share and gather feedback on main features for inclusion in the next #core-editor meeting
From there, bring these items to the next #core-editor meeting so a vision can be agreed upon by others in the core editor project. Once feedback is collected, it is then much easier to set priorities and refine the list you have in mind. At this point, you should be able to narrow down the options quite a bit and begin to dig into where those main features stand.
Step 3: Test & Create Overview GitHub Issues for main features
Working with the design lead, test the remaining features on your list and, where applicable, add tasks to the Major Release Project board to help document what needs to be enhanced or addressed for inclusion in the release. These overview issues are incredibly helpful both for anyone following along and to make sure that work proceeds as expected for inclusion in the major release.
Once this has been done, report back in the next #core-editor meeting so everyone is aware of what the plan is and these features can be included in future “What’s Next” Posts.
Deciding on additional features to include
Outside of the main features of a release, there are often in progress additional features that are still helpful to include to help complement the release as a whole. This might include features that were missed in the last major release as well as simply more minor features or updates to include. Whether you can include these depends on various factors including but not limited to:
What features might be important to finish.
The complexity/risk of each feature.
How complementary they are to the main features for the release.
Whether there are individuals working on the feature.
For any feature you do decide to add, remember to add it to the release “Must Haves” Project Board in GitHub. As you can, do your best to help move these features along whether through helping with PRs, unblocking the original authors, etc.
If there’s an additional feature you want to include that you don’t have anyone actively working on, please ask for volunteers in the #core-editor meetings during the Open Floor time.
How to handle removing features
As with any release, there are going to be tough calls that have to be made. What follows are the best steps you can take to communicate effectively and, if needed, make the call to not include a feature in a release:
Communicate as early as you can with the people working on the feature that it is at risk of not being included and clearly state what needs to be done by when in order to change that.
Give updates to the release squad as things do or do not progress alongside updates in #core-editor meetings.
Because the core editor work often includes various experimental APIs, it’s important that the APIs ready for broader usage are stabilized before the first beta 1 release (ideally at least two weeks beforehand) as renames during the beta phase are not possible. Unfortunately, there’s not a tool that automatically collects which APIAPIAn API or Application Programming Interface is a software intermediary that allows programs to interact with each other and share data in limited, clearly defined ways.’s are experimental so auditing the experimental APIs requires a manual process currently.
High Level Overview
Generally speaking, the process is as follows:
Use the script below to audit experimental APIs
Manually search the codebase to find additional experimental APIs
This script takes advantage of the fact that most of the block editor API’s are exposed as part of the wp global and recursively iterates on that variable, trying to find experimental keys in the object. This report allows you to see some experimental Actions, Selectors, Components, Functions, and some settings. However, this script does not cover experimental props in components or experimental flags in settings objects. For those aspects, you’ll need to search the codebase and talk with those familiar enough with the code to know what is likely still experimental. If you don’t know where to start, it’s recommended that you ask in the next #core-editor meeting.
With the information from the report and any information manually collected, it can help to then group related experimental APIs to get a sense of what’s in place currently. From there, use git blame to know who was involved in each API in order to pingPingThe act of sending a very small amount of data to an end point. Ping is used in computer science to illicit a response from a target server to test it’s connection. Ping is also a term used by Slack users to @ someone or send them a direct message (DM). Users might say something along the lines of “Ping me when the meeting starts.” them. You can then create a new overview issue in GitHub that lists out a checkbox for each API where one can see at a glance the status of whether a decision has been made around the API being stabilized or not.
Attending Core Editor meetings can be especially helpful after each Gutenberg release as it gives the chance to provide a high level update of what’s new in the last release (share highlights, thank you’s, and stats like the number of issues fixed).
Because Core meetings tend to involve more people in the community, the discussions tend towards more significant discussions that impact the major release. As a result, it’s a great place to both answer questions raised by the community and share updates to a wider audience. Of note, it can be helpful to coordinate with the wider release squad during this time as the meeting unfolds.
If you’re unable to make these meetings for whatever reason, it’s still incredibly valuable to leave comments on the agenda posts with relevant updates that the meeting facilitator can then share to the group. Alternatively, you can always delegate having someone up to speed fill in for you.
Compiling a list of new editor features
If you have gone through the process of deciding which features to include in the release, part of this work may already be done. But it’s still important to go through the What’s New posts to get a full list of new features. A couple of things to bear in mind when reviewing these posts:
Some of the features described in these posts may be experimental, or they may belong to packages that are not used in Core at all. It’s good to double-check that the feature is actually relevant to Core.
If you’re counting how many bugs were fixed based on the changelogs from these posts, bear in mind that any bugs fixed during the Beta and RC stages of the previous major release may have been included in that release. Unless you require a precise bug count (which will be a manual and time-consuming process), it’s best to estimate based only on the Gutenberg versions release after RC stage of the previous release.
Planning and Writing Dev Notes
For more context on Dev Notedev noteEach important change in WordPress Core is documented in a developers note, (usually called dev note). Good dev notes generally include:
a description of the change;
the decision that led to this change
a description of how developers are supposed to work with that change.
Dev notes are published on Make/Core blog during the beta phase of WordPress release cycle. Publishing dev notes is particularly important when plugin/theme authors and WordPress developers need to be aware of those changes.In general, all dev notes are compiled into a Field Guide at the beginning of the release candidate phase. best practices, check out this handbook page.
In order to know what needs a Dev Note, you can check all PRs labeled with “Needs Dev Note”. You might find that there are more PRs than you can feasible write individual posts for without overwhelming the community with information. The best thing to do if you find too many PRs with that label is to group related changes and propose a dev note for each group.
Once you have a sense of the different dev notes that are needed, create a GitHub issue (previous example) detailing the plan: what posts need to be done, what sections for each post, and which PRs are included in each. When doing so, make sure to ping the people that had PRs needing dev notes to contribute to this effort. Your job ideally should be to wrangle the updates from each PR author and plan out the timeline for sharing each dev note so that you don’t share too many in a short period of time. To help with this, it’s recommended to share target dates in order to help space out and plan appropriately.
Keep in mind that dev notes are extremely collaborative efforts requiring help from many different people! This might mean that some people you need information from didn’t see the ping the first time or don’t have the availability to take writing one note. It’s okay and expected that follow-up will be needed, likely in the form of additional pings or even DMs in Slack to get updates. When each section is done for each dev note, you can then check the checkbox to show progress made and to help others see what’s left.
As you compile each dev note, particularly if you are combining multiple PRs into one dev note, make sure you share the posts with those involved for review so everyone is on the same page. Once there’s consensus there, make sure to then share the dev notes with those involved in the major release squad to get a final review. Finally, make sure not to share too many dev notes in a short period of time.
Because months pass between core releases, it’s important to regularly check in on GitHub to triage issues (ideally weekly) particularly new ones that are unlabeled. The key is to not miss anything that might be critical.
High Level Triage
Outside of reviewing unlabeled issues, it’s important to take time to review all reported issues since a major release occurred to spot any key critical issues to resolve. This is a great task to divide up amongst others. The easiest way to do this is to divide the work into month long increments (example link for all bugs reported in October 2019).
Important Note For Determining How Critical A Bug Is
When reviewing bug reports and trying to determine how critical they are, it becomes even more important to know the version that introduced the particular bug. For example, you might find a bug that was introduced in many core WordPress versions ago but that doesn’t have many comments. This is a good sign that the bug is not truly critical to fix. Because after the first Beta, you can only include bug fixes for issues that regressed during the alpha phase, it’s essential to know if the bug you are reviewing affects the latest stable release of WordPress. This might require having multiple testing environments with different setups in order to determine the impact (current version of WordPress, beta version of core Release, and the latest version of Gutenberg). It might also mean following up with those who reported issues to get more information about their particular setup like if they are using Gutenberg and, if so, what version.
The first beta is a very significant deadline since no additional features or enhancements can be included after this milestone. This is important to keep in mind when leading up to this work so you can best prepare and communicate appropriately.
Step 1: Define individual roles for the release
This is very helpful to do early on at least 1 week before the release. Generally speaking, you’ll want to decide who is going to do the package update, create the core update patch, review etc.
Step 2: Update Trunk 2 weeks before Beta 1
Two weeks before, you’ll want to update the trunk to have the editor of that release. It is important to do that to avoid having a more complex patch close to the first beta.
Step 3: Review “Must Haves” Project Board
Before the final Gutenberg release, be sure to review the “Must Haves” project board to make sure there aren’t remaining bugs to take care of.
Step 4: Run the release
After the Gutenberg release that will be part of the first Release Candidaterelease candidateOne of the final stages in the version release cycle, this version signals the potential to be a final release to the public. Also see alpha (beta)., one should do the regular package publish and update the packages in core. Even though this should happen two weeks before the beta trunk is updated, some unexpected things may arise that will make the patch more complex. For example, a new block may have been included in the last two weeks, or there is a block that is part of the pluginPluginA plugin is a piece of software containing a group of functions that can be added to a WordPress website. They can extend functionality or add new features to your WordPress websites. WordPress plugins are written in the PHP programming language and integrate seamlessly with WordPress. These can be free in the WordPress.org Plugin Directory https://wordpress.org/plugins/ or can be cost-based plugin from a third-party but should not be part of the release. The last patch before the beta should update the packages and also adapt core to items that are in fact being shipped in that release.
After the first beta, there are weekly beta releases leading up to the Release Candidate. At this point, there are three main tasks to take care of: triage new issues, cherry-pick PRs for inclusion in the release, and update package and core paths. The following section is broken down into these three areas.
Triage New Issues
Throughout the week, it is best to check all new issues reported since the last release to make sure no regressions have been found. If issues have been created for regressions, add those issues to the “Must Haves” project board immediately.
When PR’s are submitted for issues on the “Must Haves” project board, add the “BackportbackportA port is when code from one branch (or trunk) is merged into another branch or trunk. Some changes in WordPress point releases are the result of backporting code from trunk to the release branch. to WP Beta/RC” label to the issue so you can keep track of what to include in the next beta release.
Outside of triaging these issues for inclusion in the “Must Haves” project board, it’s important to make sure that any issues added are assigned to someone to resolve, particularly with beta releases occuring on a weekly schedule..
Cherry-picking PRs for Release
Once tasks on the “Must Haves” board are completed they need to be backported into the core to be available on the next beta or RC version. This is the process to do it:
Review all PRs with the label “Backport to WP Beta/RC”. Verify if everything is expected, and that the PRs are not “risky” to go into a core release.
Create a branchbranchA directory in Subversion. WordPress uses branches to store the latest development code for each major release (3.9, 4.0, etc.). Branches are then updated with code for any minor releases of that branch. Sometimes, a major version of WordPress and its minor versions are collectively referred to as a "branch", such as "the 4.0 branch". based on wp/trunk and named in accordance with the release being prepared e.g: wp/trunk-5-4-0-rc-1.
Cherry-pick each PR into the newly created branch. The hash of the commit can be extracted from the GitHub pull request page. In order to avoid merge conflicts, it is important to make sure the commits are cherry-picked in the same order they were made in the master branch. This will likely not be the same order that appears in the label view, so double-check the merge date and if necessary refer to the commit history. You can combine multiple commits in a single command, like so: git cherry-pick c82094d8389b1756f05d4079ba98e4ee25961502 && git cherry-pick 548e600f14924d7fcfdb5250f45f718d3759d022 && git cherry-pick b72b41e27f008540410c45023b655c8ee20b67ae
Merge conflicts may still happen. If they do, you will have to resolve them, and if you are unsure how, message the PR author for assistance. Take notes about what steps were taken to resolve the conflictconflictA conflict occurs when a patch changes code that was modified after the patch was created. These patches are considered stale, and will require a refresh of the changes before it can be applied, or the conflicts will need to be resolved..
After solving a conflict execute the cherry-pick command with the remaining commits to merge.
Push the branch to GitHub.
Create a pull request on GitHub from the branch you created into the wp-trunk branch. The PR description should include a table that lists all the PRs that were cherry-picked, the authors (pinging the authors with a mention so the authors are aware that the PR will be part of the next WordPress release) and specify the changes that were made to solve the conflicts (in case there was a conflict). A sample PR can be checked at https://github.com/WordPress/gutenberg/pull/21083.
Verify that continuous integration executed with success for the PR.
Ask for reviews to the PR e.g: in the core-editor channel. Ideally the reviewer is someone that is a member of the Gutenberg core team (can write to the Gutenberg repository) and a core committercommitterA developer with commit access. WordPress has five lead developers and four permanent core developers with commit access. Additionally, the project usually has a few guest or component committers - a developer receiving commit access, generally for a single release cycle (sometimes renewed) and/or for a specific component. (can write to the WordPress repository).
Merge the PR using the “Rebase and merge” option.
Package update and core patch
After merging the cherry picking PR switch to the wp/trunk branch and run git pull.
Unregistered their init hooksHooksIn WordPress theme and development, hooks are functions that can be applied to an action or a Filter in WordPress. Actions are functions performed when a certain event occurs in WordPress. Filters allow you to modify certain functions. Arguments used to hook both filters and actions look the same. in _unhook_block_registration in tests/phpunit/includes/functions.php
Create a new WordPress build by running npm install && npm run build:dev.
Verify the issues that were supposed to be resolved are in fact resolved on the WordPress trunk.
Create a TracticketticketCreated for both bug reports and feature development on the bug tracker. for the package updates in Core.
Submit a PR against wordpress-develop to make sure the continuous integration tests pass, and add the TracTracAn open source project by Edgewall Software that serves as a bug tracker and project management tool for WordPress. ticket number to the description. This ensures the PR gets linked to the ticket, and the patch will then be created automatically. For example, here’s the PR from WordPress 6.0 release cycle: #2564
Ask for reviews. During the beta stage a review is recommended but not mandatory; during the RC process a double signoff by two different committers is required. If you are a committer and are confident with the changes you can be one of the approvers add add the “dev-feedback keyword.
When approved, commit the patch or coordinate with a committer to make sure it is committed in case you are not a committer.
If a branch for the WordPress release already exists backporting the commit from trunk to the release branch is required.
Try to have the packages updated and ready at least one day before the release date.
Once the backports have been committed, go back and remove the Backport to WP Beta/RC label from the backported PRs to avoid confusion.