Accessibility Team Update: February 26, 2014

Contributor Day Activities

We discussed activities that might be suitable for contributor days.

Team member Graham Armfield will be leading the accessibility table at the UK Contributor Day in Manchester on Saturday, March 1, and will help refine this list based on that experience.

Testing the Widgets Cutomizer

Summary

Results below tested against WCAG 2.0 AA standards. Overall, the interface performed well, and the majority of fixes should be fairly easy to make in the long run. Tested using Safari, Chrome, Firefox, Voiceover and Wave (http://wave.webaim.org/toolbar/) on 3.8.1 running Twenty Fourteen with the plugin installed.

  • One “High” rated issue.
  • Four “Medium” rated issues.
  • Keyboard accessibility when accessing individual widgets needs
    improvement.
  • Overall, an a href is used to fire specific actions on the
    page, like expand accordions or show/hide other dialogues. Broadly speaking,
    the events should be fired with a button instead of an a
    href
    .
  • The page could be improved greatly by adding WAI-ARIA roles.

Perceivable
Web content is made available to the senses – sight,
hearing, and/or touch

Guideline 1.1
Text Alternatives: Provide text alternatives for any
non-text content

Success Criteria WebAIM’s Recommendations Severity Recommendation
1.1.1 Non-text
Content

(Level A)
  • All images, form image buttons, and image map hot spots have
    appropriate, equivalent alternative
    text
    .
  • Images that do not convey content, are decorative, or contain
    content that is already conveyed in text are given null alt text
    (alt=””) or implemented as CSS backgrounds. All linked images
    have descriptive alternative text.
  • Equivalent alternatives to complex images are provided in
    context or on a separate (linked and/or referenced via longdesc)
    page.
  • Form buttons have a descriptive value.
  • Form inputs have associated text
    labels
    .
  • Embedded multimedia is identified via accessible text.
  • Frames are appropriately titled.
Pass on all criteria. No recommendations.

Guideline 1.2
Time-based Media: Provide alternatives for time-based
media

NOTE: If the audio or video is designated as an alternative to web
content (e.g., an audio or sign language version of a web page, for
example), then the web content itself serves as the alternative.

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Success Criteria WebAIM’s Recommendations Severity Recommendation
1.2.1
Prerecorded Audio-only and Video-only

(Level A)
  • A descriptive text transcript (including all relevant visual
    and auditory clues and indicators) is provided for non-live,
    web-based audio (audio podcasts, MP3 files, etc.).
  • A text or audio description is provided for non-live,
    web-based video-only (e.g., video that has no audio track).
Pass Not applicable.
1.2.2 Captions
(Prerecorded)

(Level A)
  • Synchronized captions are
    provided for non-live, web-based video (YouTube videos,
    etc.)
Pass Not applicable.
1.2.3 Audio
Description or Media Alternative (Prerecorded)

(Level A)
Pass Not applicable.
1.2.4
Captions (Live)

(Level AA)
  • Synchronized captions are provided for all live multimedia
    that contains audio (audio-only broadcasts, web casts, video
    conferences, Flash animations, etc.)
Pass Not applicable.
1.2.5
Audio Description (Prerecorded)

(Level AA)
  • Audio descriptions are provided for all video content
    NOTE: Only required if the video conveys content visually that is
    not available in the default audio track.
Pass Not applicable.
1.2.6 Sign Language
(Prerecorded)

(Level AAA)
  • A sign language video is provided for all media content that
    contains audio.
Not applicable. Only testing for AA.
1.2.7 Extended
Audio Description (Prerecorded)

(Level AAA)
  • When an audio description track cannot be added to video due
    to audio timing (e.g., no pauses in the audio), an alternative
    version of the video with pauses that allow audio descriptions is
    provided.
Not applicable. Only testing for AA.
1.2.8 Media
Alternative (Prerecorded)

(Level AAA)
  • A descriptive text transcript is provided for all
    pre-recorded media that has a video track.
Not applicable. Only testing for AA.
1.2.9
Audio-only (Live)

(Level AAA)
  • A descriptive text transcript (e.g., the script of the live
    audio) is provided for all live content that has audio.
Not applicable. Only testing for AAA.

Guideline 1.3
Adaptable: Create content that can be presented in
different ways (for example simpler layout) without losing information or
structure

Success Criteria WebAIM’s Recommendations Severity Recommendation

1.3.1 Info and Relationships

(Level A)
  • Semantic
    markup
    is used to designate headings (<h1>), lists
    (<ul>, <ol>, and <dl>), emphasized or special
    text (<strong>, <code>, <abbr>,
    <blockquote>, for example), etc. Semantic markup is used
    appropriately.
  • Tables
    are used for tabular data. Where necessary, data cells are
    associated with their headers. Data table captions and summaries
    are used where appropriate.
  • Text labels are associated with form input elements. Related
    form elements are grouped with fieldset/legend.
Medium The “Find Widgets” search box has no associated label.
1.3.2
Meaningful Sequence

(Level A)
Pass No recommendations.

1.3.3 Sensory Characteristics

(Level A)
  • Instructions do not rely upon shape, size, or visual location
    (e.g., “Click the square icon to continue” or “Instructions are
    in the right-hand column”).
  • Instructions do not rely upon sound (e.g., “A beeping sound
    indicates you may continue.”).
Pass No recommendations.

Guideline 1.4
Distinguishable: Make it easier for users to see and hear
content including separating foreground from background

Success Criteria WebAIM’s Recommendations Severity Recommendation
1.4.1
Use of Color

(Level A)
  • Color is not used as the sole method of conveying content or
    distinguishing visual elements.
  • Color alone is not used to distinguish links from
    surrounding text unless the luminance contrast between the link
    and the surrounding text is at least 3:1 and an additional
    differentiation (e.g., it becomes underlined) is provided when
    the link is hovered over or receives focus.
Pass No recommendations.
1.4.2
Audio Control

(Level A)
  • A mechanism is provided to stop, pause, mute, or adjust
    volume for audio that automatically plays on a page for more than
    3 seconds.
Pass Not applicable.
1.4.3
Contrast (Minimum)

(Level AA)
  • Text and images of text have a contrast ratio of at least
    4.5:1.
  • Large text (over 18 point or 14 point bold) has a contrast
    ratio of at least 3:1
Pass Not applicable.
1.4.4
Resize text

(Level AA)
  • The page is readable and functional when the text size is
    doubled.
Medium User cannot control the size of text because it is all fixed unit
sizing (pixels). Although page zoom is an effective method for many
users to enlarge text, it’s best practice to size in relative units
like em to give the user ultimate control.
Recommendation: With a user interface like the
customzer, it would be a challenge, but begin designing and
developing with relative unit font sizes.

1.4.5 Images of Text

(Level AA)
  • If the same visual presentation can be made using text alone,
    an image is not used to present that text.
Pass Not recommendation.
1.4.6 Contrast
(Enhanced)

(Level AAA)
  • Text and images of text have a contrast ratio of at least
    7:1.
  • Large text (over 18 point or 14 point bold) has a contrast
    ratio of at least 4.5:1
Not applicable. Testing for AA only.
1.4.7
Low or No Background Audio

(Level AAA)
  • Audio of speech has no or very low background noise so the
    speech is easily distinguished.
Not applicable. Testing for AA only.

1.4.8 Visual Presentation

(Level AAA)
  • Blocks of text over one sentence in length:
    • Are no more than 80 characters wide.
    • Are NOT fully justified (aligned to both the left and the
      right margins).
    • Have adequate line spacing (at least 1/2 the height of
      the text) and paragraph spacing (1.5 times line
      spacing).
    • Have a specified foreground and background color. These
      can be applied to specific elements or to the page as a whole
      using CSS (and thus inherited by all other elements).
    • Do NOT require horizontal scrolling when the text size is
      doubled.
Not applicable. Testing for AA only.
1.4.9
Images of Text (No Exception)

(Level AAA)
  • Text is used within an image only for decoration (image does
    not convey content) OR when the information cannot be presented
    with text alone.
Not applicable. Testing for AA only.

Operable
Interface forms, controls, and navigation are
operable

Guideline 2.1
Keyboard Accessible: Make all functionality available
from a keyboard

Success Criteria WebAIM’s Recommendations Severity Recommendation
2.1.1
Keyboard

(Level A)
  • All page functionality is available using the keyboard,
    unless the functionality cannot be accomplished in any known way
    using a keyboard (e.g., free hand drawing).
  • Page-specified shortcut keys and accesskeys (accesskey should
    typically be avoided) do not conflict with existing browser and
    screen reader shortcuts.
High Cannot operate #avaialble-widgets link using
keyboard alone. The enter key does not expand the widget for editing.
Recommendation: Make the links expand via
jQuery/jQuery UI.
2.1.2 No
Keyboard Trap

(Level A)
  • Keyboard
    focus is never locked or trapped at one particular page element.
    The user can navigate to and from all navigable page elements
    using only a keyboard.
Pass No recommendation.
2.1.3
Keyboard (No Exception)

(Level AAA)
  • All page functionality is available using the keyboard.
Not applicable. Testing for AA only.

Guideline 2.2
Enough Time: Provide users enough time to read and use
content

Success Criteria WebAIM’s Recommendations Severity Recommendation
2.2.1
Timing Adjustable

(Level A)
  • If a page or application has a time limit, the user is given
    options to turn off, adjust, or extend that time limit. This is
    not a requirement for real-time events (e.g., an auction), where
    the time limit is absolutely required, or if the time limit is
    longer than 20 hours.
Pass Not applicable.
2.2.2 Pause, Stop,
Hide

(Level A)
  • Automatically moving, blinking, or scrolling content that
    lasts longer than 5 seconds can be paused, stopped, or hidden by
    the user. Moving, blinking, or scrolling can be used to draw
    attention to or highlight content as long as it lasts less than 5
    seconds.
  • Automatically updating content (e.g., automatically
    redirecting or refreshing a page, a news ticker, AJAX updated
    field, a notification alert, etc.) can be paused, stopped, or
    hidden by the user or the user can manually control the timing of
    the updates.
Pass Not applicable.
2.2.3 No
Timing

(Level AAA)
  • The content and functionality has no time limits or
    constraints.
Not applicable. Testing for AA only.
2.2.4
Interruptions

(Level AAA)
  • Interruptions (alerts, page updates, etc.) can be postponed
    or suppressed by the user.
Not applicable. Testing for AA only.
2.2.5
Re-authenticating

(Level AAA)
  • If an authentication session expires, the user can
    re-authenticate and continue the activity without losing any data
    from the current page.
Not applicable. Testing for AA only.

Guideline 2.3
Seizures: Do not design content in a way that is known to
cause seizures

Success Criteria WebAIM’s Recommendations Severity Recommendation
2.3.1 Three
Flashes or Below Threshold

(Level A)
Pass No recommendation.
2.3.2 Three
Flashes

(Level AAA)
  • No page content flashes more than 3 times per second.
Not applicable. Only testing for AA.

Guideline 2.4
Navigable: Provide ways to help users navigate, find
content, and determine where they are

Success Criteria WebAIM’s Recommendations Severity Recommendation
2.4.1
Bypass Blocks

(Level A)
  • A link is provided to skip navigation and
    other page elements that are repeated across web pages.
  • If a page has a proper heading structure, this may be
    considered a sufficient technique instead of a “Skip to main
    content” link. Note that navigating by headings is not yet
    supported in all browsers.
  • If a page uses frames and the frames are appropriately
    titled, this is a sufficient technique for bypassing individual
    frames.
Pass No recommendation.
2.4.2 Page
Titled

(Level A)
  • The web page has a descriptive and informative page
    title.
Pass No recommendation.
2.4.3
Focus Order

(Level A)
  • The navigation order of links, form elements, etc. is logical
    and intuitive.
Pass No recommendation.
2.4.4 Link
Purpose (In Context)

(Level A)
  • The purpose of each link (or form image button or image map
    hotspot) can be determined from the link text alone, or from the
    link text and its context (e.g., surrounding paragraph, list
    item, table cell, or table headers).
  • Links (or form image buttons) with the same text that go to
    different locations are readily distinguishable.
Medium The arrows that expand each Customizer section do not announce in
a screen reader. A screen reader user may have no idea they are
expandable. Recommendation: Use a similar markup
pattern to this accessible
accordion
that relies heavily on WAI-ARIA. The arrow links for
#available-widgets do announce to screen readers, but
only as “Link”. Essentially, these are empty links and have little
semantic meaning. Recommendation: (Good) Put
meaniful link text inside the a href to give it meaning.
(Better and similar to above) Use a similar markup pattern to this
accessible
accordion
that relies heavily on WAI-ARIA.
2.4.5
Multiple Ways

(Level AA)
  • Multiple
    ways
    are available to find other web pages on the site – at
    least two of: a list of related pages, table of contents, site
    map, site search, or list of all available web pages.
Pass Not applicable.
2.4.6
Headings and Labels

(Level AA)
  • Page headings and labels for form and interactive controls
    are informative. Avoid duplicating heading (e.g., “More Details”)
    or label text (e.g., “First Name”) unless the structure provides
    adequate differentiation between them.
Pass No recommendations.
2.4.7
Focus Visible

(Level AA)
  • It is visually apparent which page element has the current
    keyboard focus (i.e., as you tab through the page, you can see
    where you are).
Medium See above about #available-widgets links. User can
see focus here, but not operate.
2.4.8
Location

(Level AAA)
  • If a web page is part of a sequence of pages or within a
    complex site structure, an indication of the current page
    location is provided, for example, through breadcrumbs or
    specifying the current step in a sequence (e.g., “Step 2 of 5 –
    Shipping Address”).
Not applicable. Only testing for AA.
2.4.9 Link
Purpose (Link Only)

(Level AAA)
  • The purpose of each link (or form image button or image map
    hotspot) can be determined from the link text alone.
  • There are no links (or form image buttons) with the same text
    that go to different locations.
Not applicable. Only testing for AA.
2.4.10
Section Headings

(Level AAA)
  • Beyond providing an overall document structure, individual
    sections of content are designated using headings, where
    appropriate.
Not applicable. Only testing for AA.

Understandable
Content and interface are understandable

Guideline 3.1
Readable: Make text content readable and
understandable

Success Criteria WebAIM’s Recommendations Severity Recommendation
3.1.1 Language of
Page

(Level A)
  • The language of the page is identified using the HTML lang
    attribute (<html lang=”en”>, for example).
Pass No recommendation.
3.1.2 Language
of Parts

(Level AA)
  • The language of page content that is in a different language
    is identified using the lang attribute (e.g., <blockquote
    lang=”es”>).
Not applicable. No recommendation.
3.1.3 Unusual
Words

(Level AAA)
  • Words
    that may be ambiguous, unknown, or used in a very specific way
    are defined through adjacent text, a definition list, a glossary,
    or other suitable method.
Not applicable. Only testing for AA.
3.1.4
Abbreviations

(Level AAA)
  • Expansions for abbreviations are provided by expanding or
    explaining the definition the first time it is used, using the
    <abbr> element, or linking to a definition or glossary.
    NOTE: WCAG 2.0 gives no exception for regularly understood
    abbreviations (e.g., “HTML” on a web design site must always be
    expanded).
Not applicable. Only testing for AA.
3.1.5 Reading
Level

(Level AAA)
  • A more understandable alternative is provided for content
    that is more advanced than can be reasonably read by a person
    with roughly 9 years of primary education.
Not applicable. Only testing for AA.
3.1.6
Pronunciation

(Level AAA)
  • If the pronunciation of a word is vital to understanding that
    word, its pronunciation is provided immediately following the
    word or via a link or glossary.
Not applicable. Only testing for AA.

Guideline 3.2
Predictable: Make Web pages appear and operate in
predictable ways

Success Criteria WebAIM’s Recommendations Severity Recommendation
3.2.1
On Focus

(Level A)
  • When a page element receives focus, it does not result in a
    substantial change to the page, the spawning of a pop-up window,
    an additional change of keyboard focus, or any other change that
    could confuse or disorient the user.
Pass No recommendation.

3.2.2 On Input

(Level A)
  • When a user inputs information or interacts with a control,
    it does not result in a substantial change to the page, the
    spawning of a pop-up window, an additional change of keyboard
    focus, or any other change that could confuse or disorient the
    user unless the user is informed of the change ahead of
    time.
Pass No recommendation.

3.2.3 Consistent Navigation

(Level AA)
  • Navigation links that are repeated on web pages do not change
    order when navigating through the site.
Pass Not applicable.

3.2.4 Consistent Identification

(Level AA)
  • Elements that have the same functionality across multiple web
    pages are consistently identified. For example, a search box at
    the top of the site should always be labeled the same way.
Pass No recommendation.

3.2.5 Change on Request

(Level AAA)
  • Substantial changes to the page, the spawning of pop-up
    windows, uncontrolled changes of keyboard focus, or any other
    change that could confuse or disorient the user must be initiated
    by the user. Alternatively, the user is provided an option to
    disable such changes.
Pass No recommendation.

Guideline 3.3
Input Assistance: Help users avoid and correct
mistakes

Success Criteria WebAIM’s Recommendations Severity Recommendation
3.3.1 Error
Identification

(Level A)
  • Required form elements or form elements that require a
    specific format, value, or length provide this information within
    the element’s label.
  • If utilized, form
    validation
    errors are presented in an efficient, intuitive,
    and accessible manner. The error is clearly identified, quick
    access to the problematic element is provided, and user is
    allowed to easily fix the error and resubmit the form.
Pass No recommendation.
3.3.2 Labels or
Instructions

(Level A)
  • Sufficient labels, cues, and instructions for required
    interactive elements are provided via instructions, examples,
    properly positioned form labels, and/or fieldsets/legends.
Pass No recommendation.
3.3.3 Error
Suggestion

(Level AA)
  • If an input error is detected (via client-side or server-side
    validation), provide suggestions for fixing the input in a timely
    and accessible manner.
Not applicable. No recommendation.
3.3.4 Error
Prevention (Legal, Financial, Data)

(Level AA)
  • If the user can change or delete legal, financial, or test
    data, the changes/deletions can be reversed, verified, or
    confirmed.
Not applicable. No recommendation.
3.3.5
Help

(Level AAA)
  • Provide instructions and cues in context to help in form
    completion and submission.
Not applicable. Only testing AA.
3.3.6
Error Prevention (All)

(Level AAA)
  • If the user can submit information, the submission is
    reversible, verified, or confirmed.
Not applicable. Only testing AA.

Robust
Content can be used reliably by a wide variety of user
agents, including assistive technologies

Guideline 4.1
Compatible: Maximize compatibility with current and
future user agents, including assistive technologies

Success Criteria WebAIM’s Recommendations Severity Recommendation
4.1.1
Parsing

(Level A)
Pass This passes, but a few instances of div
class="customize-control-content"
give the error of “Element
div not allowed as child of element label in this context.” This is
unrelated to the Widget Customizer worth noting.
4.1.2 Name, Role,
Value

(Level A)
  • Markup is used in a way that facilitates accessibility. This
    includes following the HTML/XHTML specifications and using forms,
    form labels, frame titles, etc. appropriately.
Pass No recommendations.

Accessibility Team Update: February 12, 2014

Admin Screen Audit

We continue to test 3.8.1 admin screens for keyboard accessibility, here are the screens left to check. If you want to pitch in and help out, Tweet to @WPAccessibility or comment here and we’ll get you the details. It sure is fun painting this fence, said Tom Sawyer.

  • Toolbar: Howdy [user] – Edit My Profile, Log Out
  • Dashboard: Home, Updates
  • Appearance: Themes, Menus, Header, Editor
  • Plugins: Installed Plugins, Add New, Editor
  • Settings: General, Writing, Reading, Discussion, Media, Permalinks

Theme Accessibility Review

@joedolson reports that there are currently four themes going through the optional theme accessibility review process. @accessiblejoe reports that a Cities theme, a church/congregation theme, Nashville, by Anna Belle Leiserson @faithandweb is heading toward completion. We noted that Accessible Zen by @davidakennedy is already in the directory, and that his Alexandria team is starting work on an accessible government theme. The Los Angeles accessible theme team is working on an accessible business/ecommerce theme. We’re seeing some good progress on the review process and production of themes.

The CSUN Conference

If you are going to the International Technology and Persons With Disabilities Conference in March we invite you to join accessibility team members when we present Roadmap For Making WordPress Accessible and don’t miss the @WPAccessibility Tweetup in the hour before Tommy Edison, @BlindFilmMaker, delivers the keynote address in the evening on Tuesday March 18.

Want to participate in reviewing WordPress themes for…

Want to participate in reviewing WordPress themes for the accessibility-ready tag? There’s a trac keyword for that! Themes awaiting an accessibility-ready review.

#accessibility-ready, #themes-2

AH-O2 Accessibility Testing

I’ve been doing some accessibility testing with version 0.4.0 of the AH-O2 plugin which adds tooltips to some links and input fields within the admin area where it’s felt appropriate.

I’ve commented on my findings directly into the Docs blog. You can see my comments here: https://make.wordpress.org/docs/2014/02/04/ah-o-update-3-february-2014/

#ah-o2, #help, #testing

Accessibility Team Update: January 29, 2014

Testing Continues

Discussion about testing continued this week with a question about generating tickets to address test findings. We will not pursue creating tickets until we have completed testing all admin screens. Reference was made to outstanding accessibility tickets and how they can be viewed. We will be looking for patterns in addition to specific issues. An example of this is an early finding that effective visual focus indication for keyboard-only users is inconsistent. This is a general pattern, not limited to any one screen.

Team Leads

The accessibility team discussed team leads and the consensus of the group is that Joseph Karr O’Connor @accessiblejoe will remain as the team rep and the very capable Amanda Rush @arush will step up as the alternate team rep.